Volume I: Population by County and Sub-County

1. The total enumerated population increased to 47,564,296 in 2019 from 37,724.850 in 2009.

2. There were 23,548,056 males, 24,014,716 females and 1,524 intersex in 2019 compared to 18,674,184 males and 19,050,666 females in 2009. Intersexes were not counted in 2009.

3. Females accounted for 50.5% of the total population in both 2009 and 2019 censuses.

4. The inter-censal growth rate has declined to 2.2% in 2019, from 2.9% in 2009.

Key Findings

Summary of the three volumes is as below:

Volume II: Distribution of Population by Administrative Units

• The total urban and rural population was 14,831,700 and 32,732,596 respectively in 2019 compared to 12,487,375 urban and 26,122,722 rural population in 2009.

• The percentage of urban to total population increased from 24.1 per cent in 2009 to 31.2 per cent in 2019.

• The most densely populated sub-locations in 2019 were:

1. Kware in Nairobi City County with 166,517
2. Tibwani in Mombasa County with 114,520
3. Mlolongo in Machakos County with 93,075
4. Tassia in Nairobi City County with 88,874
5. Mowlem in Nairobi City County with 88,039

• The most populous urban centres in 2019 were:

1. Nairobi City – 4,397,073
2. Mombasa – 1,208,333
3. Nakuru – 590,674
4. Ruiru – 490,120
5. Eldoret  – 475,716

Volume III: Distribution of Population by Single Years, Sex and Administrative Units

• The population aged below 35 years was 35,700,787 (75.1 per cent) in 2019 compared to 30,237,255 (78.3 per cent) in 2009.

• Children (0-14 years) were 18,541,982(39.0 per cent) in 2019 compared to 16,571,877 (43 per cent) in 2009.

• Adolescents (10-19 years) were 11,631,929 (24.5 per cent) in 2019 compared to 9, 204,398 (23.8 per cent) in 2009.

• The youth population (18-34 years) constitute 13,777,600 (29.0 per cent) in 2019 compared to 11, 809,518 (28.7 per cent) in 2009.

• Population of working age (15-64 years) was 27,151,134 (57.1 per cent) in 2019 compared to 20,684,861 (53.6%) in 2009.

• The elderly population (65+ years) was 1,870,493 persons (3.9 per cent) in 2019 compared to 1,332,273 persons (3.45 per cent) in 2009. The females accounting for 55.8 per cent of the elderly in 2019 compared to 54.8 per cent in 2009.

Volume IV: Distribution of Population by Socio-Economic Characteristics
Education

• The total population aged 3 years and above who were at school/learning institution was 17,780,277 (40.7%). The proportion of the population recorded to be in school/learning institution in 2009 was 40.2%. This was an improvement of 0.5 percentage points;
• Pre-primary level  – 3,275,028 in 2019 compared to 2,302,026 in 2009 an increase of 42.3%;

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• Primary level  – 10,028,470 in 2019 compared to 9,433,493 in 2009 an increase of 6.3%;

• Secondary level  –  3,403,657 in 2019 compared to 1,798,587 in 2009 an increase of 89.2%;

• Middle level, technical training/ vocational training centres (TVET) enrolment – 506,109 in 2019 compared to 325,196 in 2009 an increase of 55.6

• University enrolment more than doubled to 470,983 in 2019 from 171,855 in 2009.

Labour Force Participation
• The total conventional population aged 5 years and above was 41,235,190 (86.7 %) in 2019 compared to 32,478,570 (84.1 %) in 2009.

• Population in the labour force aged five years and above in 2019 was 22,298,559, composed of 19,529,216 (88.6 %) who worked in the seven days preceding the census and 2,769,343 who were seeking work. In 2009, the economically active population was 17,973,213, with 15,786,331 (87.8 %) working and 2,186,882 seeking work.

The conventional population aged 15-64 years was 26,868,611 out of which 73.5 per cent are in the labour force.

• The conventional population aged 18-34 years was 13,621,492 out of which 8,436,418 (61.9 %) were working while 1,647,484 were seeking work or indicated that there was no job available.

• The number of children aged 5-17 years from conventional population was 15,866,967 out of which 1,349,365 (8.5 %) reported to have been engaged in an economic activity during the last 7 days preceding the Census night.

• The inactive conventional population aged 5 years and above was 18,927,688 out of which 16.1 million persons were full-time students and 1.5 million were homemakers.

ICT: Ownership and Use of Selected ICT

 Equipment and Services
• The population aged 3 years and above that owned a mobile phone was 20,694,315 (47.3 per cent).

• The proportion of individuals aged 3 years and above that used Internet and Computer stood at 22.6 per cent and 10.4 per cent, respectively.

• The population aged 15 years and above who searched and bought goods and services online (e-commerce) was 1,249,133 (4.3 per cent).

Disability

• A population of 918,270 (2.2 per cent) aged 5 years and above have some form of disability.
• More females (523,883 persons) than males (394,330 persons) have disabilities.

• The most common types of disabilities are physical (385,417 persons) and vision (333,520 persons).

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• The number of persons with albinism is 9,729 persons or 0.02 per cent.

Religion

The data shows that in 2019, 85.5 per cent of the population are Christians comprising mainly of Protestants (33.4%), followed by Catholics (20.6%) and Evangelical churches (20.4%).  Muslims accounted for 11 % of the entire population.

Ethnicity

In 2019, the ten most populous tribes were:

1.  Kikuyu 8,148,668
2.  Luhya 6,823,842
3.  Kalenjin 6,358,113
4.  Luo 5,066,966
5.  Kamba 4,663,910
6.  Kenyan Somali 2,780,502
7.  Kisii 2,703,235
8.  Mijikenda 2,488,691
9.  Meru 1,975,869
10. Maasai 1,189,522

Conclusion – Kikuyus have risen from 6.6 to 8.1 – adding 1.5M more people. Luhyas from 5.4m to 6.8 – adding 1.4M people. Kalenjin from 5 – 6.3 – adding 1.3M people. Luo from 4 to 5 – adding 1M people.Kamba from 3.9 to 4.7 – adding 0.8M.

2009 figures

The largest native ethnic groups were the Kikuyu (6,622,576), Luhya (5,338,666), Kalenjin (4,967,328), Luo (4,044,440), Kamba (3,893,157), Kisii (2,205,669), Somalis (2,385,572), Mijikenda (1,960,574), Meru (1,658,108), Turkana (988,592), and Maasai (841,622).

The least five populous tribes were
1. Dahalo 575
2. Kenyan American 596
3. Gosha 685
4. El Molo 1,104
5. Konso 1,299

Special Population
• The total non-conventional population was 351,014
• The population found in Hotel/Lodge Residents was 99,786
• The population found in Schools/Children homes was 79,504
• Those in Prison/Police Cells were 59,354 on the census night
• The number of Travellers and Persons On-Transit was 48,697
• The Hospital In-Patients were 43,572
• The persons enumerated as outdoor sleepers (excludes outdoor sleeper’s/street families who were in rehabilitation and educational institutions) was 20,101 

Ownership of Household Assets

• The proportion of households owning a Television set increased from 28.0 per cent in 2009 to 40.7 per cent in 2019.

• The proportion of households that have internet connection stood at 17.9 per cent.

• The proportion of households with a motorcycle increased from 2.1 per cent in 2009 to 9.2 per cent in 2019.

• The proportion of households owning a bicycle dropped from 25.3 per cent in 2009 to 15.0 per cent.

Housing Conditions and Amenities

• The proportion of conventional households using mains electricity as a source of lighting more than doubled from 22.7 per cent in 2009 to 50.4 per cent in 2019.

• The proportion of conventional households using solar as a source of lighting increased substantially from 1.6 per cent in 2009 to 19.3 per cent in 2019.

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• The proportion of conventional households that owned the main dwelling unit they occupied was 61.3 per cent while 38.7 per cent rented the main dwelling unit.

• About 94 per cent of the owned dwelling units were constructed by households, while 2.8 per cent were purchased.

• The proportion of conventional households using clean energy for cooking (LPG, Electricity, Biogas and solar) was 25.4 per cent.

• The proportion of households using piped water increased from 30.0 per cent in 2009 to 34.2 per cent in 2019.

Agriculture

• The number of enumerated households during the 2019 census that mainly engaged in crop farming, livestock rearing and aquaculture was 6.4 million (52.3 per cent of households).

• Of the farming households, crop farming was practiced by 87.4 per cent and   livestock rearing by 74.4 per cent households.

• Maize production is the predominant crop cultivated by 80.3 per cent of the agriculture practising households. This was followed by beans (56.7 per cent) and Bananas (33.7 per cent).

• Total agricultural land (excluding communal land, corporate and Institutional agricultural land) reported by households accounted for 17.5 per cent of the total land area.

• The four main livestock kept by households were chicken, goats, sheep and cattle at 38.8, 28.0, 19.3 and 15.8 million respectively.

• In 2009, the four main livestock kept by households were chicken, goats, cattle and sheep at 31.9, 27.7, 17.5 and 17.1 million respectively.

Validation of Census Volume IV Results

Census stakeholders were engaged at various stages of the 2019 KPHC implementation. The recent engagement was during the validation workshop that was conducted for two days to discuss the results reported in volume IV.  There was a general consensus that the census results showed a similar trend with the administrative data generated by relevant Ministries, Departments and Agencies. It was further agreed that reasons for any small variations that are noted would be established when undertaking the in-depth analysis.

• One more Census basic report namely; Volume V on Distribution of Population by Political Units will be released after validation of the results with the relevant stakeholders.

• The preparatory work on the analytical reports is ongoing and the reports will be ready in the next six months.

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